Most of today’s #censorship circumvention #tools use the same fundamental approach: they encrypt the user’s traffic to make it look innocuous, and channel it to a #proxy server located outside the censored network. This leads to a fundamental problem: Once the censor discovers the proxy server, the proxy itself becomes just another site to block. If users can find the proxy servers, the censors can too.
In this race to find and use—or find and block—proxy servers, censoring governments enjoy natural, growing advantages over censored users. For example, they can examine all data flowing across their borders in search of disfavored activity. Strategies that rely on friendly servers are failing against increasingly sophisticated state-level censors who can see and control a country’s entire network.
#Refraction networking takes a different approach.